Is social democracy imperialist? The stance of the Finnish Social Democrats’ on foreign policy and imperialism (1969)

This is the 1969 foreign policy manifesto of the Social Democratic Party of Finland. I suggest people study this document before people creating assumptions about what social democracy’s stance on imperialism and foreign policy is.


There have been both positive and negative developments in international relations in the 1960s. A global war has been avoided and peaceful international cooperation has expanded in all areas. at the same time, however, local wars and conflicts have erupted around the world and have expanded internationally. Some important advances have been made in disarmament, such as agreements banning ground-based nuclear testing and non-proliferation. However, it has not been possible to prevent competition equipment and its extension to all continents. Economic and technological development in industrialized countries has been rapid. Technology and available resources would make it possible to create tolerable living conditions for all the inhabitants of the planet. However, differences in living standards have sharpened. The technology is also used for military and luxury purposes. Even the inadequate development aid targets set by the UN have not been met. The majority of humanity sees constant hunger. The exploitation and oppression supported by international capitalism and imperialism prevent the liberation of the peoples of the Third World. As a movement for peace and social reform, social democracy requires clear positions and solutions to international problems. The Social Democratic Workers’ Movement must ensure that, in accordance with its ideological objectives, action is taken to strengthen peace in Europe and throughout the world. The problems of the Third World must take their side, continue to work to end exploitation and oppression. Only in this way can development problems escalate into war. In order to ensure peace and social reform, opportunities for co-operation within the international labor movement must be openly sought. The policy of international social democracy must be reviewed in such a way that the ideological goals of democratic socialism take precedence over limited national and alliance interests.

FINLAND AND THE SOVIET UNION Mutual relations and co-operation between Finland and the Soviet Union have developed positively. An agreement of friendship, cooperation and aid between our countries is the basis of good neighborly relations and a precondition for a successful policy of neutrality in our country. The SDP emphasizes the need to comply with the agreement. The development of relations between Finland and the Soviet Union is in line with the permanent living interests of both countries and an indication of the possibilities for peaceful coexistence and international co-operation. The SDP attaches great importance to the development of contacts and open discussions within the International Labor Movement. The visit of the SDP delegation to Moscow in May 1968 at the invitation of the NKP and the joint declaration issued during the visit have significantly strengthened cooperation between our countries in this sense. The SDP supports the continuation of relations between the NKP and the SDP and obliges the party bodies and members to work in every way to develop cooperation between our countries. The comprehensive development of relations between Finland and the Soviet Union is promoted by the co-operation of the Finnish political forces, especially the labor movement, which work to deepen the friendship between our countries. The SDP requires that practical co-operation between Finland and the Soviet Union be developed in the fields of economics, science and culture, which have many untapped opportunities. Increasing proficiency in the Russian language and a deeper knowledge of the conditions in the Soviet Union are important for the development of cooperation. The party considers it particularly important that trade between Finland and the Soviet Union be further expanded by diversifying the structure of trade.

FINLAND AND THE NORDIC COUNTRIES Co-operation between the Nordic countries has developed continuously in a favorable way. The party considers it essential to support measures that increase contacts between the peoples of the Nordic countries and strengthen cohesion. The interaction has entered a new phase, with the emergence of a common Nordic economic union and the wider harmonization of legislation that has proved appropriate. The Finnish Social Democratic Party supports enhanced economic co-operation between the Nordic countries. This interaction must be in line with the essential interests of the Member States and take into account the specific circumstances of each country. The development of a free labor market and an increase in all forms of interaction in Ostrobothnia require the harmonization of legislation in order to achieve equal opportunities, especially in the fields of education, labor law, culture, research, social and pension policy and health care. The party has noted with satisfaction the diversification and intensification of co-operation between the hotspots of Finland, Sweden and Norway and considers its further development important. The party hopes that the fourth North Calotte, the Soviet Union, could be involved in this co-operation to an even greater extent. The SDP believes that the Nordic Council has had considerable merit, especially in bringing about common Nordic legislation. The party considers it necessary to further develop the work of the Council, to define its tasks more precisely and to strengthen its role. The Finnish Social Democratic Party considers it natural that the Nordic countries develop co-operation for peace and security. Therefore, interaction between them on these issues needs to be increased. The Nordic countries must continue to take the lead, especially in strengthening European security. The Nordic countries must support developing countries’ efforts to achieve political and economic independence. It is therefore necessary to create enhanced Nordic development co-operation, for example in the framework of joint Nordic projects. Nordic co-operation in the United Nations and its specialized agencies and other international communities must be promoted. Social democracy is strong in the Nordic region. The Social Democratic parties need to increase co-operation in order to increase their Nordic and international influence.

IV EUROPEAN SECURITY The interests of peace and security for the peoples of Europe as a whole require their social systems to create an effective security system for Europe based on the peaceful coexistence of different states. To this end, a conference of all European countries must be convened. The Socialist Party notes with satisfaction that practical steps have been taken to organize the security conference required by the party at its 27th party meeting, and the idea has received widespread support. The party supports the Finnish government’s initiative to convene the conference and considers it a new demonstration of an active peace policy. The new European Security System requires recognition of the unshakability of Europe’s borders. It would also be in the interests of peace for all European states to recognize the existence of two sovereign and equal German states and their current borders. It is also important for European security that both German states refrain from acquiring and using nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction and from participating in deciding on their use. Both German states must be given equal opportunities to participate in international organizations, such as the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and the Inter-Parliamentary Union. Finland must develop political and economic relations with both German states on the basis of the principle of equality.

PEACE POLICY Social democracy requires continued efforts to secure peace and promote disarmament. Peace work must be seen as an important part of political action. To this end, the SDP will promote the establishment and operation of peace-building institutions at the international, national and party levels. The SDP requires its members to work actively for peace work. When used appropriately, the international activities of non-governmental organizations form an effective channel for Finland’s awareness and influence in the world. It can help to involve a wide range of citizens in practical action for peace and international cooperation. The government should support this work and also use the opportunities offered by non-governmental organizations in development cooperation. World peace is under threat in Southeast Asia, and especially in Vietnam, where the decades-long war has dragged on and is constantly claiming heavy casualties. The Social Democratic Party condemns the US aggression and interference in the internal affairs of the Vietnamese people. The United States must urgently withdraw from Vietnam and restore a state of peace on the basis of the 1954 Geneva Convention, which requires the sovereignty of peoples. The party believes that Finland must take active steps to safeguard the sovereignty of the Vietnamese people and give its support to the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam. The crisis in the Middle East must be resolved as a matter of urgency by peaceful means, in accordance with the resolution adopted by the UN Security Council in November 1967, with the withdrawal of Israeli troops from the occupied territories and recognition of the independence and sovereignty of the Middle East. Securing lasting peace urges the dismantling of all military alliances. Military factions formed after World War II increase the possibility of crises by their mere existence. In addition, they hamper social progress, especially when it reaches the third world. The Social Democratic Party condemns military alliances and their use as intermediaries of exploitation and oppression. The party emphasizes the need to respect the sovereignty and equality of peoples in international life. Violence in international relations must be abandoned. Increasing racing equipment and the existence of military dictatorships have exacerbated tensions around the Mediterranean. The navies and bases of the great powers in this area do not reduce the threat of war. The party condemns the policies of the Greek, Portuguese and Spanish dictatorial governments and states that the existence of these governments depends to a large extent on the support of the Atlantic Alliance. The People’s Republic of China must be recognized as the legal representative of the Chinese people as a member of the UN and its Security Council in order to prevent the situation in Asia from escalating as a result of the isolation of the People’s Republic of China. Disarmament progress has been slow in the 1960s. Many initiatives, such as the proposals to limit armaments in Central Europe, the Nordic nuclear-weapon-free zone and the agreement on security in the basin area between Finland and Norway, have not yet been implemented. The Social Democratic Party supports all constructive proposals and demands that Finland also take the lead in disarmament. The great powers have increasingly used modern technology for military purposes with large investments of money. The construction of anti-missile systems may mean an acceleration of racing equipment. The great powers must reach an agreement on suspending the construction of these systems and other disarmament measures. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons must be ratified and an agreement banned from underground nuclear testing urgently needs to be drawn up. International agreements must be drawn up on the application of technology for the peaceful exploitation of the seabed and on space research and nature conservation.

VI. FIGHT FOR DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES AND SOLIDARITY IN THE LABOR MOVEMENT The Social Democratic Party of Finland sees the situation of underdeveloped countries as the most serious escalation of the conflict between labor and capital. In order to stop the misery, the progressive social movements of the underdeveloped countries must break the ownership that hinders the material and spiritual development of the country. In this struggle, the progressive forces of the underdeveloped countries will also receive the support of the Social Democratic Workers’ Movement. In the opinion of the Finnish Social Democratic Party, development cooperation is not charity. Solidarity in the labor movement must be based on political, material and informational support. Solidarity also has its substantive demands. The Finnish Social Democratic Party has decided to establish a special International Solidarity Fund to support progressive organizations and liberation movements in developing countries. The Party Conference calls on party members and organizations to provide active support to liberation movements and fraternal parties in developing countries through the fund. The labor movements of industrialized countries have a duty to protect and support the development of productive life in developing countries on their own. The Finnish Social Democratic Party demands that a general development aid policy program be drawn up for Finland and that the amount of funds invested by Finland in development cooperation be increased to 1% of GDP in accordance with the United Nations recommendations. The Finnish Social Democratic Party appeals to all civic circles. It is our duty to give our moral, political and material support to the liberation movements in developing countries. This obligation applies to both private citizens and our governmental bodies. The Finnish Social Democratic Party is very concerned about the continuing deepening of the conflicts caused by racial oppression in southern Africa and mainly deplores the reluctance of the responsible European powers to build peaceful solutions. The party strongly condemns the policy of racial segregation. The constant proliferation of military governments in Latin America raises concerns in the Finnish Social Democratic Party. However, by preventing the necessary process of social change through violence, the reactionary forces of Latin America cannot stifle the progressive forces of the countries. The risk of an outbreak of violence increases. The Finnish Social Democratic Party condemns the economic exploitation and coercion perpetrated by the United States in Latin America. The SDP notes that the persecution of national and political minorities in Indonesia, Iraq, Nigeria and Sudan has reached genocide-like proportions. The SDP expresses its solidarity with the persecuted minorities and calls on the governments of those countries to put an immediate end to armed activity and to safeguard the rights of minorities.

VII SOCIAL DEMOCRACY Social democracy can only become a major international movement by developing national and international economic policies in line with democratic socialism and pursuing an active policy of peace aimed at dismantling the capitalist system and other military alliances established during the Cold War. The Socialist International has recently discussed the SDP initiative to open contacts and debate with the Communist parties in the socialist countries, as well as initiatives to strengthen European security. There must be an open debate between the flows of labor, despite ideological differences, as this contributes to a link between peace for war and social progress. International cooperation between the Social Democrats can make a significant contribution to the realization of the European Security Conference. International social democracy must be clearly on the side of the struggle for liberation in developing countries against colonialism, neo-colonialism and oppression. In particular, financial and political support must be given to national liberation movements. Socialist and other progressive movements in Asia, Africa, the Arab world and Latin America must be actively sought to be contacted and given better opportunities to participate as organizations in the activities of the Socialist International. The international must, of course, retain the character of a broad forum for discussion and not take decisions that are binding on the membership.

SDP’S POSITION ON DEVELOPING COUNTRY AND UN POLICY Class antagonisms between social groups and peoples, together with weapons of mass destruction, pose the most serious and ever-increasing threat to world peace. The conflict between labor and capital, both in national and especially in international relations, continues to impede fair development throughout the power of the capitalist system. It is for the most part the cause of the economic, political, social and cultural problems that exacerbate the internal conditions of underdeveloped countries and their relations with industrialized states. Former colonial powers and other industrialized countries are still economically exploiting underdeveloped countries. Because of this international exploitation, neo-colonialism, state independence alone, in the current international relations, does not guarantee the right and opportunity of developing country citizens to fully develop their personalities and real power to decide on the material and spiritual achievements of their own work and community activities. In line with its international traditions, social democracy demands the right of everyone to political, economic, social and cultural decision-making. The Social Democrats, living in relative prosperity compared to the developing countries of the industrialized countries, remain true to their principles of international solidarity and cohesion and do not allow the material progress they have made to alienate themselves to the capital side. The Social Democrats apply the principles of democratic socialism also to the international life of social contradictions as well as political. to end economic and racial oppression in the world. The goal of social democracy is a world of cooperation. The United Nations is an important political, economic and cultural link for Finland to most developing countries. Therefore, the World Organization must be developed in such a way that its activities help to eliminate the causes of national and international conflicts and, through mediation, to prevent the escalation of violence. As a unified body of international social democracy, the Socialist International has a duty in practice to show its solidarity with the peoples of underdeveloped countries. The Finnish Social Democratic Party is also determined to establish direct relations with socialist and progressive parties in developing countries.

I UNITED NATIONS The United Nations was created after World War II primarily to consolidate the then economic, political, and military force. The actual political decision-making power in the organs of the organization is in the hands of rich and militarily powerful states, although the so-called third world countries are in the quantitative majority. The development of organized international cooperation is the best guarantee of the security of small and neutral states. The UN must develop the basis for such a system of international peaceful change. The hallmark of social democracy in international cooperation is the equal right of all peoples to participate. The basic precondition for the work of the United Nations is therefore the real right of all states in the world to be represented in the world organization. The political decision-making of the UN must be made fairer by increasing the number of permanent members of the Security Council and taking into account not only military, economic and political power but also the population of states. The road to a just world order is through international economic cooperation and political mediation. As an industrialized state, Finland is obliged, in accordance with United Nations resolutions, to increase the amount of funds it spends on development cooperation to one per cent of its gross domestic product. The efforts of the United Nations and its agencies to increase international cultural relations must be strongly supported and experts in various fields must be actively made available to the United Nations. There is also a need to expand international cooperation in research on the UN system, and in particular in general peace and conflict research. The general line of the Finnish delegation to the UN must be non-alignment with the great power conflicts, unwavering defense of human rights and support for developing countries. Finland’s UN policy must be active and proactive. Finland’s contribution to the financing of the United Nations’ multilateral untied aid programs must be greatly increased if the political influence thus gained is to strengthen the decision-making power of developing countries and smaller industrialized countries at the UN. Multilateral aid commitments must require that the organisation’s financial strength not be used for political or military purposes detrimental to developing countries and contrary to Finland’s policy of neutrality. Finland’s policy in the various UN bodies and specialized agencies must be adapted to the principles of its general UN policy. Determined UN policy requires not only effective administration and adequate staff, but also active support and oversight by parliament, parties and public opinion. The role of Parliament in the oversight of UN policy must be strengthened and the powers of the UN delegation expanded, as well as ensuring that its composition corresponds to the political balance. The government must provide adequate support for the training of experts needed for UN activities, related scientific research, and those non-governmental organizations that make UN principles and activities known.

POLITICAL RELATIONS WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES The basic precondition for the material and spiritual rise of developing countries is the mobilization of their own social forces. It is only through the political will that mobilizes the mental and material forces of the entire people of an underdeveloped country that the material and informational assistance provided by the industrialized countries will have a truly stimulating effect on economic growth. Structural violence, conditions in which the majority of the people are deprived of political, economic and cultural rights and basic needs, is as serious an obstacle to the renewal of conditions as open violence, the defeat of political opponents by force. The Finnish Social Democratic Party believes that the peaceful resolution of international problems and democratic socialism point the way to a fairer and safer world. Still, the Social Democrats cannot turn a blind eye to the fact that reactionary rulers in many underdeveloped countries have, on their own or with the help of foreign military aid, created a machinery of violence in support of their power and thus closed the way to peaceful change. The continuing misery in many underdeveloped regions is therefore a serious global problem, as the SDP is ready to support financially and politically also national liberation movements in developing countries which, in the absence of all other possibilities, are forced to resort to violence to end exploitation and oppression. The Social Democratic Party of Finland supports forces in developing countries that aim for a democratic social system. The capitalist industrialization process in developing countries is neither appropriate nor rapid enough. Moreover, it quite obviously leads to even greater exploitation and injustice than in industrialized countries. The Social Democrats see democratic socialism as the best system for bringing about change fairly and effectively. However, given the circumstances of underdeveloped countries, the SDP does not consider a multi-party system in developing countries to be a necessary starting point for democracy. Pseudo-democracy dominated by the narrow upper class and foreigners must not obscure the fact that the ever-escalating problem of underdeveloped countries is to satisfy the basic needs of its citizens, to eradicate material misery and cognitive backwardness. As a member of the Socialist International, the SDP requires that this organization strictly adhere to its anti-imperialist, colonial, and neo-colonial agendas in its policies. Achieving the universal goals of the International requires that the membership include more progressive parties in developing countries. The criteria for membership of the Socialist International must take particular account of the difficult conditions in which the fraternities of developing countries operate and which often force them to choose ways of operating that are distant to Western social democracy. As the membership expands, the International may increasingly become a body in which socialist parties operating under different circumstances and with different national goals can exchange views and information on the applicability of democratic socialism.

ECONOMIC RELATIONS WITH DEVELOPING COUNTRIES In the interests of public security, the growing economic disparities between industrialized and underdeveloped countries, and thus the differences between them, must be halted quickly. Development aid is the extension of national income distribution based on fairness and equity to international relations. Thus, it is a natural economic and political goal for Finland. The idea of ​​social democracy is to oblige party members to ensure that Finland has sufficient political will to dismantle the economic and informational forces needed for development aid. At the same time, the SDP has a duty to ensure that the resulting burden on the Finnish economy is not passed on to the poor. International trade is regulated by a market mechanism which, in its current state, exacerbates the division of the class between industrialized welfare states and agricultural-poor poor countries. Without changing the direction and structure of trade between developed and developing countries, developing countries will not have the opportunity to earn the export revenues necessary to diversify their own economies. Therefore, Finland’s economic policy must take into account the gradual reduction of customs duties and consumption taxes restricting the exports of developing countries so that it does not cause serious disturbances to Finland’s own economy. The funds allocated to Finland’s public development aid must be invested in such a way that, above all, they contribute to solving the problems of developing countries. They must not be used to make unjustified towers or unfair income transfers in Finland or in developing countries. The SDP is well aware that Finland’s production structure and the needs of developing countries cannot be easily reconciled. The party believes that Finland can also provide tied financial assistance and supplies through bilateral agreements. However, due to the constraints imposed by our financial structure, most financial assistance should be channeled into bilateral assistance projects within the framework of international commitments and agreements. In all Finnish development aid work, special attention must be paid to the opportunities offered by Nordic co-operation. Despite the administrative cost, Nordic and bilateral agreements on technical assistance projects are, in the SDP’s view, the most desirable form of development co-operation at this stage. In this way, Finnish expert power can be used effectively for international tasks, which, due to our economic structure, is sufficiently detachable and which professionally meets the requirements of international co-operation. At the same time, the work of Finnish experts in aid projects concluded bilaterally by the United Nations and other international organizations, as well as Finland, opens up the possibility for Finland to train qualified personnel that are increasingly required by international relations and trade. The basic goal of the Social Democrats is a peaceful shift towards democratic socialism and a just world order. The material and informational support provided to developing countries points in practice to a path that can be found in a solution to the serious problem of underdevelopment through mutual understanding and interaction.

SDP’S POSITION ON SECURITY AND DEFENSE POLICY I. SECURITY AND DEFENSE POLICY OBJECTIVES Security policy objectives The purpose of Finland’s security policy is to protect the country’s state independence and material integrity. state independence refers to the legal and practical possibility of maintaining and developing society in accordance with our own values ​​politically, economically, socially and culturally. By joining the United Nations, Finland has, to some extent, limited its sovereignty, as have other member states. With the serious threats to the survival of all mankind today, such as nuclear destruction, overpopulation and pollution of the habitat, there is no reason to oppose the restriction of sovereignty in favor of the World Organization, if this opens up opportunities to address vital human issues. On the other hand, it should be noted that as the international economic division of labor and cooperation increases, not only foreign states but also large international businesses may severely limit our ability to develop our society in accordance with our own values. Therefore, measures to preserve financial independence are important. In the era of nuclear weapons, the security of our country, in view of the threat of war, depends primarily on the maintenance of an international state of peace, for which the great powers have the main responsibility. By equipping a small country, it cannot substantially increase its security in the event of war, as advances in military technology are constantly widening the gap between the military capabilities of large and small countries. By relying only on armed equipment, we are also not improving the conditions for maintaining and consolidating a state of peace. Therefore, a small, neutral country can best maintain its security by pursuing an active peace-minded foreign policy, with the goal of war prevention and conflict resolution, and general disarmament. The likelihood of war as a threat to the independence and territorial integrity of a small country has diminished due to the intimidating power of nuclear weapons and the resulting military imbalance of the great powers. As long as there is no general disarmament — implemented, however, there is a military threat. The Social Democratic Party believes that maintaining the armed forces can, in the current circumstances, support and complement our country’s security policy efforts. That is why Finland is! develop a defense institution in accordance with the security considerations of a small country and the obligations that bind us. The party believes that due to the changing and comprehensive nature of security policy, it is necessary to develop other measures that can promote our country’s security policy goals and to constantly weigh different options. In addition to the actual armed defense, this program addresses a number of other measures under the common security policy. Measures more closely covered by foreign policy, such as disarmament and other peace policy programs, are excluded from this program. Finland’s security policy position World War II and subsequent developments have fundamentally changed Finland’s security policy position. There are currently no unresolved security problems between Finland and its neighboring countries. The current international security system is based on a nuclear balance between major military alliances, in which the likelihood of a major war is low due to mutual fear. Care is also taken to avoid limited conflicts, especially in Europe, as they are more likely to lead to a major war. As such, Finland does not constitute a primary target for a potential attacker. A massive attack aimed at conquering Finnish territory is an unlikely possibility. Theoretically, the most likely is a limited surprise attack in the current circumstances, which would be carried out in the context of the Great War on a part of our country, with the aim of gaining a more favorable position for an attack on a strategic target outside our country. Considering Finland’s remote position, the execution of such an attack would be such a task requiring such great sacrifices that it can be considered unlikely in the context of the Great War. Our country is therefore not facing an Immediate Military Threat and the visible developments do not represent a fundamental change in this regard. However, the situation may become unfavorable as racing equipment continues. Government contracts The 1947 Paris Peace Treaty places quantitative and qualitative limits on the peacetime strength and armaments of the armed forces. However, following a revision of the interpretation of the 1963 peace agreement, the restrictions do not in practice prevent the development of the defense forces. The Friendship, Cooperation and Assistance Agreement of 1948 determines Finland’s security policy line. The agreement obliges Finland to defend the integrity of its territory by all available means if Finland or the Soviet Union, through Finland, are attacked by Germany or a state associated with it. If necessary, Finland and the Soviet Union agreed on joint defense measures. The Yya Agreement does not set quantitative or qualitative targets for the development of the Defense Forces. Their setting depends on our own discretion within the framework of the peace agreement. It is in Finland’s interests to try to be as responsible as possible for the defense of its own territory. However, increasing the equipment of the Finnish Defense Forces does not diminish the importance of the YYA agreement in Finnish security policy. Defense policy objectives Defense policy refers to those legislative and administrative measures aimed at combating armed measures against the territory and population of Finland. Armed national defense must be prepared to counter attacks or regional violations that are possible and can be responded to with the resources of a small country. In order to maintain neutrality and the obligations of the treaties, the control of the territory of our kingdom and the fight against possible territorial violations must be given priority. The Defense Forces must also be prepared to counter the invasion of our territory by foreign troops and their possible attempts to use our country as a base of attack against our neighbors. Combating a limited strategic surprise attack with conventional weapons may be an issue A nuclear attack or other large-scale attack is superior to being fought by a small country alone. Armed resistance always endangers the physical security of citizens. Therefore, defense policy must also take into account the possibility of civil resistance, ie non-violent defense, in order to safeguard democracy and sovereignty.

II. SECURITY AND DEFENSE POLICY AS A PART OF SOCIAL POLICY Defense institution development As a relatively resource-intensive activity, national defense must adapt to general social policy goals and resources. Its needs are not separate from other societal needs, but must be weighed alongside others. Defense policy must be planned and long-term. Multi-annual development plans need to be drawn up, which can be periodically reviewed and renewed. However, economic fluctuations must be taken into account when deciding on appropriations, where appropriate. In order to develop a planned defense policy, the conditions for defense economic and security policy research must be improved, both within the framework of the State Administration and in independent research institutes. The consideration of defense appropriations must be based on the need to develop the defense institution in the light of the tasks assigned to it. Appropriations cannot therefore be tied to any fixed share of the Budget or GDP, and this share cannot be directly derived from an international comparison, but from Finland’s own security policy. From an economic point of view, it must be borne in mind that defense procurement can only be a small factor in employment or growth. On the other hand, procurement of materials strains the balance of payments. It is also not appropriate to place within the defense institution economic activities, such as research for civilian purposes, which are otherwise in need of harmonization and centralization. In terms of public finances, defense spending competes with many other societal needs. Many of them are those whose satisfaction, rather than equipping, can increase the security of citizens. Defense readiness is created over a long period of time, and not everything can be achieved at once. For procurement, a priority must be established within the defense institution’s own district, on the basis of which political decision-making takes place. The defense institution’s procurement programs must be designed in such a way as to develop the primary branches of defense. The aim cannot be to train a large mass army but an army that is as appropriate as possible to the objectives set, within the available resources. Despite the pursuit of efficiency, conscription remains the most viable democratic solution as the basis of the defense system. The application of military service and the internal functioning of the defense institution must: however, take into account the general provisions of defense policy. Recruitment must therefore be more selective and greater differentiation must be sought in training. The range of civil service opportunities needs to be substantially increased. The concept of compulsory military service must thus be extended to include military service. Service times need to be reviewed after examining how training is rationalized in different forms of service. Other security policy measures Citizens must be provided with relevant information on Finland’s security and defense policy. Military national defense is not an end in itself and should not be developed into a specific social ideology. Other social policy goals, such as increasing the well-being of citizens, should not be seen as an intermediary in strengthening national defense. Once so-called intellectual defense has perpetuated such attitudes and over-represented security concerns as national rather than dependent on the international system as a whole, this activity must be abandoned and replaced by security policy outreach, which presents armed means as an alternative. Citizens’ access to information must be ensured through rational advance planning, even in crisis situations. The preconditions and possibilities of civil resistance in different situations must be thoroughly investigated and then the training activities deemed necessary must be undertaken. In the context of the Armed Forces, preparedness forces that can be used for UN peacekeeping missions must be developed and trained, especially within the framework of the conscription unit. In order to ensure a sufficient reserve, training activities must be continuous and the most suitable units must be selected for each age group on the basis of an application. Training should include a wealth of international knowledge, familiarity with policing, and the teaching of non-violent methods. Security of citizens during war and crisis and in disaster situations Security policy also involves measures whose main purpose is not primarily to maintain sovereignty and military or other defense capabilities, but to protect the personal security of citizens. In the event of financial embargo or isolation, economic legislation and administrative organization need to be developed for various crisis situations. However, exceptional legislation to this effect should be without prejudice to constitutional rights such as personal and freedom of expression and the right to political activity. The need for restrictions in the current scope of the martial law needs to be clarified. Civil protection must be seen as an action by society to limit the damage caused by armed conflict and various peacetime disasters. The starting point for setting civil protection objectives must be the same as for general security policy. The civil protection organization must be kept separate from the military national defense organization. The equality of the different regions and population groups of the kingdom must be considered a key principle. The division into protected areas and control areas must be removed. The containment program must be lightened in favor of the radiation and basic protection network. When nuclear pollution is the most important danger for the whole country, the principle of evacuation must be largely abandoned. Civil protection education must be truthful, equitable and critical. Old-fashioned starting points and methods that create virtual security must be abandoned. The strategic, economic, social and psychological criteria and consequences of civil protection must be constantly re-evaluated and a new civil protection law must be enacted that meets modern requirements.

III SECURITY AND DEFENSE POLICY DECISION-MAKING Security and defense policy-making must meet the requirements of both democracy and efficiency at the same time. In the interests of efficiency, it is necessary to strive for clear harmonization of decision-making and the most effective parliamentary scrutiny possible for democracy. The current decision-making system does not meet these requirements. The planning, preparation and management of armed national defense activities is partly the responsibility of the Commander of the Defense Forces, partly of the Minister of Defense, that is, partly under the President of the Republic, partly under the administration of the Council of State. The Parliamentary Defense Council, which has been set up as an advisory body, has not been given a significant role. The harmonization of security policy has most clearly taken place at the level of the President of the Republic. The powers of the Parliamentary Committee on Defense Affairs have been limited, perhaps Parliament has no effective procedure at all to monitor security and defense policy. The current situation is partly due to organizational norms contained in the Constitution and other laws, partly to the practice adopted. The harmonization of security and defense policy must be organized at the level of the Government. Military national defense activities as a whole must be brought to the attention of the Minister of Defense. The Government Committee and the Defense Council need to be developed for this purpose. The implementation of the above efforts will ultimately require a revision of the constitutional provisions governing the role of the President. However, progress can already be made in this direction by amending the provisions on the President’s decision-making in military matters and by seeking to strengthen the position of the Council of State vis-à-vis the President in practice. However, the military authorities decide on the details of military action, both under normal circumstances and in times of crisis. The layout of the task must take place at the political level of the Government, which is accountable to Parliament. In the event of war, care must be taken to ensure that the power of the Chief of Staff is exercised under close parliamentary scrutiny. Parliamentary oversight and decision-making powers need to be strengthened by giving the Defense Committee more opportunities to address issues related to the internal conditions of the military defense and the defense institution and by developing a security policy debate procedure.

IV. INTERNAL ARRANGEMENTS OF THE DEFENSE INSTITUTION Democracy and military In all its activities, the Defense Forces must adapt to the objectives of the Supreme Security Policy and Social Policy. The defense forces must be fully integrated into the rest of society for the sake of justice and individual freedom. The opposite between democracy and militaryism must be eliminated as far as possible. Provisions on military offenses in peacetime must be included in the general criminal law The Military Criminal Code would thus only apply to the state of war. On the death penalty. must be abandoned in all circumstances. The provisions on military service need to be re-weighed so that the aim is not external form but efficiency. All self-serving activities must be abandoned. The principles of democracy and tolerance must be observed within the Defense Forces with the aim of equality and positive interaction between regular personnel and conscripts. All forms of political discrimination must be abandoned. Education needs to emphasize the need for discussion and different opinions. General staff and conscripts must be allowed to organize freely. Restrictions on social activities must be removed, including a ban on political participation. Staff must bring the negotiation of civil servants within the scope of the Judiciary Act. Valuation differences between officers and non-commissioned officers must be eliminated by implementing a uniform scale of values. There is a need to create a system that guarantees ability-based career advancement, regardless of basic education, and a fair procedure for determining merit. The role of public security and social policy must be increased in the training of key personnel, as well as in the training of conscripts. Recruitment The current relatively indiscriminate invitation and recruitment system needs to be developed in this way. that only those who do not cause health or social difficulties will be recruited. Various forms of security services need to be added so that conscription can be performed in normal military service in UN peacekeeping training, in developing countries or in various civilian missions. Conscripts who, for religious reasons, refuse to serve at all by belonging to a religious community that prohibits service must be completely released. Religious, ethical and social beliefs must be accepted as grounds for exemption from armed service. Of all service options. adequate and timely information must be provided to conscripts. Legal protection Conscripts and permanent staff must be brought under the jurisdiction of civil courts. A special department for military offenses must therefore be set up within the lower courts of the garrison communities. Disciplinary custodial sentences must be abolished so that custodial sentences can only be imposed in the courts. An absolute upper limit must be set for overtime. In order to improve judicial control, consideration should be given to setting up a special military ombudsman. Social conditions Current arrangements, such as social commissions, are unsatisfactory in terms of practical work and democracy. The appointment of social commissions must take into account the representation of staff and conscripts and ensure adequate expertise outside the defense institution. Special posts must be created in the troops to assist conscripts in civil matters. Employees must be guaranteed the opportunity to manage their civil affairs if necessary. Leisure time must be safeguarded and the holiday policy reformed so that holidays are regular and their length is taken into account when determining their length, as well as securing the possibility of traveling regardless of wealth. In order to secure the standard of living of conscripts during their service, a more efficient system must be set up. A sufficient number of psychiatrist and psychologist posts must be established to deal with the mental difficulties of the staff employed. The positions of military priests must be abolished and religious services transferred to the congregations. Compulsory practice of religion must be abandoned.

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL SOLIDARITY FUND The Social Democratic Party’s program “The SDP’s Position on International Issues”, adopted at the 26th Party Conference in 1963, and the Party Committee’s proposal for the SDP’s developing country and UN political program require the party to actively support Political support can be provided either by the party’s statements in Finland and within the Socialist International, or by influencing the policy of the Finnish government, but the forms of financial support are more unclear, and occasional grants cannot be a means of appropriate assistance. Several other Social Democratic parties have long had international financial assistance activities. For several years, the Swedish Social Democratic Workers’ Party has had a special scholarship fund from which scholarships have been distributed, e.g. representatives of the above organizations in developing countries. At the 1967 Extraordinary Conference of the Parties, the party established a special International Solidarity Fund to which party organizations, members, and others interested may donate funds. The collection takes place e.g. in the form of campaigns. The Fund distributes grants to a number of organizations each year in accordance with the Fund’s rules. Under the auspices of the International Solidarity Fund, controlled and long-term relief operations can be carried out. Larger sums can be allocated to specific projects in the same way as official development assistance. The main targets of the grants would be education and training activities as well as the so-called humanitarian aid, such as medical care. In addition, e.g. organizational activities of organizations. For party members, the International Solidarity Fund is a practical form of participation in the implementation of the party’s international goals. The information activities combined with the activities of the fund increase the international awareness of the party members. On the basis of the above, the Party Committee proposes that the Party Conference that the Social Democratic Party set up a special International Solidarity Fund to provide grants to progressive and socialist organizations and liberation organizations in developing countries. Grants must be for educational and training activities or for the promotion or humanitarian activities of such organizations. The party assembly obliges the party committee to draw up rules for the fund in the spirit required by its decision and to elect the board of directors of the fund and to organize fundraising within the entire Social Democratic labor movement.

Social democrat. Socialist. I like Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Eduard Bernstein. Social democracy as a theory is aimed at achieving socialism democratically

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Tristam Pratorius the Social Democrat🌹

Social democrat. Socialist. I like Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels and Eduard Bernstein. Social democracy as a theory is aimed at achieving socialism democratically